संविदान क्या है? – 147 आईपीसी के अनुसार अपराधिक उपयोग।


A Constitution is a fundamental document that outlines the basic principles and laws of a country or organization. It serves as the supreme law that governs the actions of the government and the citizens within its jurisdiction. The Constitution sets out the framework for the organization of the government, the distribution of power among different branches, and the rights and duties of the citizens.

In the context of India, the Constitution of India is the supreme law of the country. It was adopted on 26th January 1950, and it lays down the framework that defines India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. The Indian Constitution is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 395 articles, 12 schedules, and 8 appendices.

Key Features of the Indian Constitution:

  1. Preamble: The Preamble of the Indian Constitution sets out the aims and objectives of the Constitution, which includes justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity.

  2. Fundamental Rights: Part III of the Constitution guarantees fundamental rights to all citizens, including the right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, and right to constitutional remedies.

  3. Directive Principles of State Policy: Part IV of the Constitution lays down the directive principles that guide the state in making laws and policies for the welfare of the people.

  4. Parliamentary System: India follows a parliamentary system of government with a bicameral legislature at the center and the states.

  5. Fundamental Duties: Part IVA of the Constitution added by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, contains the fundamental duties of citizens.

  6. Independent Judiciary: The Indian Constitution establishes an independent judiciary to interpret and uphold the Constitution.

  7. Amendment Procedure: The Constitution provides for its own amendment to adapt to changing times and needs, while ensuring its basic structure remains intact.

Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles in the Indian Constitution:

One of the key provisions of the Indian Constitution is the safeguarding of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy.

Fundamental Rights:

  1. Right to Equality (Articles 14-18): It ensures equal treatment before the law and prohibits discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.

  2. Right to Freedom (Articles 19-22): It includes freedom of speech and expression, right to assemble peacefully, right to form associations or unions, right to practice any profession, and right to move freely throughout the territory of India.

  3. Right against Exploitation (Articles 23-24): It prohibits human trafficking, forced labor, and child labor.

  4. Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles 25-28): It guarantees freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practice, and propagate religion.

  5. Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29-30): It protects the rights of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions and conserve their culture.

  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32): It provides for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights through the Supreme Court.

Directive Principles of State Policy:

While Fundamental Rights are justiciable and enforceable in a court of law, Directive Principles of State Policy are non-justiciable but form the basis of governance in India. They are guidelines or principles given to the state to establish social and economic democracy through appropriate legislation and policies.

Some of the Directive Principles include:

  1. Equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
  2. Providing free and compulsory education for children.
  3. Promotion of international peace and security.
  4. Uniform civil code for all citizens.
  5. Protection of the environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife.

These Directive Principles aim to create a welfare state that ensures social and economic justice for all its citizens.

Role of the Constitution in Upholding Law and Order:

The Indian Constitution plays a pivotal role in upholding law and order in the country. It establishes the framework for the functioning of the government, the separation of powers among the legislature, executive, and judiciary, and delineates the duties, responsibilities, and limitations of each branch of the government.

By clearly defining the powers and functions of each institution, the Constitution helps in maintaining a system of checks and balances which prevents any one branch from becoming too powerful. This ensures accountability, transparency, and fairness in the governance of the country.

The Constitution also provides for the protection of fundamental rights of the citizens, which safeguards them against arbitrary actions by the state. The right to constitutional remedies allows individuals to approach the courts if they feel their rights have been violated, ensuring that justice is accessible to all.

Moreover, the Directive Principles of State Policy guide the government in formulating policies and laws that promote the welfare of the people, social and economic justice, and a just and humane society.

In conclusion, the Constitution of India is not just a legal document but the embodiment of the aspirations and ideals of the people of India. It serves as a living document that adapts to the changing needs of society while upholding the basic principles of justice, equality, and fraternity. The Constitution acts as the foundation of the Indian legal system, ensuring that the rule of law prevails and the rights of the citizens are protected.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

  1. What is the significance of the Preamble in the Indian Constitution?
    The Preamble of the Indian Constitution sets out the aims and objectives of the Constitution, providing the basic structure and guiding principles of governance.

  2. Can the Fundamental Rights be suspended during emergencies?
    Yes, during a state of emergency under Article 352, some of the Fundamental Rights can be suspended except for rights guaranteed under Articles 20 and 21.

  3. What is the procedure for amending the Indian Constitution?
    An amendment to the Constitution can be initiated by either House of Parliament and requires a special majority for its passage.

  4. How does the Constitution protect the rights of minorities in India?
    The Constitution guarantees cultural and educational rights to minorities under Articles 29 and 30, allowing them to establish and administer educational institutions.

  5. What is the role of the Directive Principles of State Policy in governance?
    Directive Principles provide guidelines for the government to create policies and laws that promote social and economic democracy and welfare of the people.

  6. Can the Constitution be amended to change its basic structure?
    No, the basic structure of the Constitution, which includes federalism, secularism, and democracy, cannot be altered even through amendments.

  7. What is the importance of the right to constitutional remedies under Article 32?
    Article 32 allows individuals to directly approach the Supreme Court for enforcement of Fundamental Rights, ensuring protection against violations.

  8. How does the Constitution ensure the independence of the judiciary?
    The Constitution provides for the appointment, removal, and salaries of judges to be carried out independently of the executive to ensure judicial autonomy.

  9. Can the Directive Principles of State Policy be enforced in a court of law?
    Directive Principles are non-justiciable, meaning they are not enforceable by a court of law. However, they serve as guidelines for governance.

  10. What is the significance of the Fundamental Duties added to the Constitution?
    The Fundamental Duties were added by the 42nd Amendment to instill a sense of responsibility and patriotism among citizens towards the nation and its ideals.

Diya Patel
Diya Patel
Diya Patеl is an еxpеriеncеd tеch writеr and AI еagеr to focus on natural languagе procеssing and machinе lеarning. With a background in computational linguistics and machinе lеarning algorithms, Diya has contributеd to growing NLP applications.

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